Harvested guano, 2008 Guano deposits, formed by the excrement of colonies of sea birds such as guanay cormorants, boobies and pelicans, have accumulated for centuries on islands off the coast of Peru such as the Chincha Islands and the Islas Ballestas. The waters here, rich in sea-life and teeming with fish such as the anchoveta, […]

(Novel written by Mexican author Carlos Fuentes) The achievement of La muerte de Artemio Cruz, and of many great works of fiction, cannot easily be understood or articulated without an in-depth analysis of its most important elements. Through switches in narrative point of views, jumps back-and-forth through time, and elaborate symbolism, the author, Carlos Fuentes, […]

Sculpture; Mexico City, Mexico 1479 (Aztec Sun Stone; courtesy of Wikipedia) The Aztec Calendar Stone, otherwise colloquially known as the Mexica Sun Stone or historically known as the Cuauhxicalli Eagle Bowl, is a giant circular stone sculpture about 12 feet in diameter. The stone it’s carved on is approximately 4 feet thick, and the entire […]

In the 19th century, Latin America was the main exporter of bananas: hence earning the nickname the “Banana Republic.” Bananas were a major crop exported mainly to the USA. Rich buyers would take control of weaker provincial farms called campesinos. The harvests were challenging and required strength and expertise. An item commonly used for harvest […]

Black and white photograph Tacna, Peru/Chile, 1926 The War of the Pacific was a defining South American conflict of the 19th century post-independence era. Though the conflict has officially long been over, its legacy remains part of the national conscience of Bolivia, Peru, and Chile. More than just defining borders, it has become part of […]

Published in Chile 1888; Book of poems and short stories Rubén Darío (1867-1916) is the most influential Nicaraguan poet, known as the Father of the literary movement called “Modernism.” Modernism is a late-19th-century Spanish-language literary movement that rose from a reaction against the literary naturalism of Émile Zola, and against the wider bourgeois conformity and materialism […]

The Hay-Paunceforte Treaty is a treaty that allowed for the building of the Panama Canal in Panama to serve as a conjoiner for the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean. The treaty was signed on November 8, 1901 by both the United States and United Kingdom. During this time, the intention of this treaty was to give […]